Cryotherapy
Posted: 10 December 2011 11:51 AM   [ Ignore ]  
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20524715

Sports Med. 2010 Jun 1;40(6):509-17. doi: 10.2165/11531940-000000000-00000.
Whole-body cryotherapy in athletes.
Banfi G, Lombardi G, Colombini A, Melegati G.
Source
IRCCS Galeazzi, School of Medicine, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. .(JavaScript must be enabled to view this email address)
Abstract
Cold therapy is commonly used as a procedure to relieve pain symptoms, particularly in inflammatory diseases, injuries and overuse symptoms. A peculiar form of cold therapy (or stimulation) was proposed 30 years ago for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. The therapy, called whole-body cryotherapy (WBC), consists of exposure to very cold air that is maintained at -110 degrees C to -140 degrees C in special temperature-controlled cryochambers, generally for 2 minutes. WBC is used to relieve pain and inflammatory symptoms caused by numerous disorders, particularly those associated with rheumatic conditions, and is recommended for the treatment of arthritis, fibromyalgia and ankylosing spondylitis. In sports medicine, WBC has gained wider acceptance as a method to improve recovery from muscle injury. Unfortunately, there are few papers concerning the application of the treatment on athletes. The study of possible enhancement of recovery from injuries and possible modification of physiological parameters, taking into consideration the limits imposed by antidoping rules, is crucial for athletes and sports physicians for judging the real benefits and/or limits of WBC. According to the available literature, WBC is not harmful or detrimental in healthy subjects. The treatment does not enhance bone marrow production and could reduce the sport-induced haemolysis. WBC induces oxidative stress, but at a low level. Repeated treatments are apparently not able to induce cumulative effects; on the contrary, adaptive changes on antioxidant status are elicited—the adaptation is evident where WBC precedes or accompanies intense training. WBC is not characterized by modifications of immunological markers and leukocytes, and it seems to not be harmful to the immunological system. The WBC effect is probably linked to the modifications of immunological molecules having paracrine effects, and not to systemic immunological functions. In fact, there is an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, and a decrease in proinflammatory cytokine IL-2 and chemokine IL-8. Moreover, the decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 supported the anti-inflammatory response. Lysosomal membranes are stabilized by WBC, reducing potential negative effects on proteins of lysosomal enzymes. The cold stimulation shows positive effects on the muscular enzymes creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and it should be considered a procedure that facilitates athletes’ recovery. Cardiac markers troponin I and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, parameters linked to damage and necrosis of cardiac muscular tissue, but also to tissue repair, were unchanged, demonstrating that there was no damage, even minimal, in the heart during the treatment. N-Terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a parameter linked to heart failure and ventricular power decrease, showed an increase, due to cold stress. However, the NT-proBNP concentrations observed after WBC were lower than those measured after a heavy training session, suggesting that the treatment limits the increase of the parameter that is typical of physical exercise. WBC did not stimulate the pituitary-adrenal cortex axis: the hormonal modifications are linked mainly to the body’s adaptation to the stress, shown by an increase of noradrenaline (norepinephrine). We conclude that WBC is not harmful and does not induce general or specific negative effects in athletes. The treatment does not induce modifications of biochemical and haematological parameters, which could be suspected in athletes who may be cheating. The published data are generally not controversial, but further studies are necessary to confirm the present observations.

PMID: 20524715 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Seeing that cryotherapy (cold bath water too) influences the inflammatory responses in the muscle, could this also mean that long term strength and endurance progress is decreased, because these inflammatory responses is part of the hypertrophy process?

In theory cryotherapy would allow one to train more often and progress faster, because of faster recovery from workouts, but if the overcompensation effect after each session is decreased to a great degree you may be spinning your wheels.

There should be some new french research on this by the national institute of sport, but I only found very short term studies.

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Posted: 12 December 2011 01:20 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 1 ]  
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yes that could be a problem. I could speculate it being effective when you are really fatigued.

Or the faster recovery is just a placebo effect.

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Posted: 13 December 2011 01:17 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 2 ]  
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Is this study loosely related?
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027749
Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

Abstract Top
Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

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Posted: 13 December 2011 10:47 AM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 3 ]  
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near60lifter - 13 December 2011 01:17 AM

Is this study loosely related?
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0027749
Effects of Whole-Body Cryotherapy vs. Far-Infrared vs. Passive Modalities on Recovery from Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Highly-Trained Runners

Abstract Top
Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC), far infrared (FIR) or passive (PAS) modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post), post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS) in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being]) were recorded before, immediately after (post), post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h), while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

Thanks 60, I was looking for that study!

Is too bad they did not measure MVC for a longer period. In non of the groups did MVC got past the pre taken measurements. So they did not answer the ‘progress question’. They would have needed several weeks of treatments to answers that one anyways, so it’s ok. It is interesting to see how MVC evolves with different treatments however.

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Posted: 14 December 2011 12:41 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 4 ]  
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Check this from Pendlay: http://www.pendlayforum.com/showthread.php?t=3375

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Posted: 14 December 2011 05:04 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 5 ]  
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-170 degrees celcius? I gotta say I don’t believe that until I see it.. That’s wicked cold! Almost as cold as liquid nitrogen, which would snap freeze you pretty quickly..

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Posted: 14 December 2011 05:48 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 6 ]  
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Karky - 14 December 2011 05:04 PM

-170 degrees celcius? I gotta say I don’t believe that until I see it.. That’s wicked cold! Almost as cold as liquid nitrogen, which would snap freeze you pretty quickly..

Maybe it’s like oven heat? You can put your hands in a oven warmed to 200 Celsius, but you can’t touch the sides or else you will burn your hands. But I do agree with you. Something on your body would probably turn black and fall off…

also love the “legend” of the Wales Rugby team below. It is so typical, scientists find something that may or may not work and suddenly there is some team out there that won some cup because of it. (Steroids are way more likely in most cases, or just hard work and luck)

Edit: At http://www.uscryotherapy.com/ they mention -184 Fahrenheit, not Celsius. Still bloody cold though. -120 Celsius…

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Posted: 14 December 2011 06:08 PM   [ Ignore ]   [ # 7 ]  
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Yeah I forgot about conduction.. air doesn’t conduct the cold so well to your body, but still.. it’s insane!

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