Very cool research.
Muscle Memory Solved
March 17 2013
Muscle memory is what? We all know that if you lift weights and stop lifting for a few months (3-6 months), you will lose strength and muscle. However, if you start training back again, you gain the lost muscle or strength within a few weeks - as if the muscle remembers where you left off. This phenomenon is called ‘muscle memory’.
We used to believe this is largely due to the nervous system mechanisms. The nervous system mechanisms may explain the strength gains, but it doesn’t explain how you can gain back the muscle size so quickly.
But recent studies show that we may have finally solved the mystery of muscle memory
How did they solve it?
Unlike other cells, muscle cells have more than one nucleus (probably thousands). So why do muscles need so many nuclei? The nucleus is basically what controls the cell and since your muscles are a lot lot bigger and way more complex than other cells in the body, one or two nuclei just cannot do the job. So when your muscles get bigger, you have to add more muscle nucleus. The increase in nucleus with muscle growth has been shown in number of studies. It has been shown that people who take steroids and people who grow muscle easily have lot more muscle nuclei than normal.
Just like muscle growth, we believed that when we lose muscle, the opposite happens - we lose some nuclei since there is no reason for the extra nuclei to sit around. And this was supported in studies which showed as muscle shrinks in size, the number of nucleus decreases too.
Now here comes the surprise.
However, recently, studies using different animal models (denervation, unloading, synergic ablation) showed that as muscle atrophies or shrinks due to inactivity or detraining (until 3 months), there is no loss of muscle nuclei as we previously thought! As shown in the picture, the muscle size decreased by 50% (lines) but the muscle nuclie count (stained with green dye) remained the same.
So what? Since now the muscle has the same number of muscle nuclei after we stopped training, it is easy to build the muscle back to its previous size. So these muscle nuclei seems to acts like ‘memory cells’. They know how much muscle you had before you stooped training.
But why did we think muscle nuclei die with muscle loss?
The recent studies used a different technique to study these nuclei.
In previous studies they were counting nuclei which belonged to the connective tissue and other cells (satellite cells). And these nuclei do die with detraining. So researchers mistakenly assumed that the muscle nuclei die with muscle loss. But these weren’t actual muscle nuclei. The recent studies only counted the actual muscle nuclei and showed no loss .
- Muscle memory phenomenon can be largely explained by muscles maintaining their muscle nuclei during muscle loss or detraining.
- These results are yet to be replicated in human studies.
Anoop | Mon March 18, 2013
Thanks Byron for the comment. Yep it’s really cool.
This could be one reason why people who took steroids still look big even after they stopped using it years back. And the authors speculate it would be good for people to start weight training before they get old and start ‘storing’ some myonuclei. Once you start the ageing process, there is less myonuclei added even if you want.
Bret Contreras | Tue March 19, 2013
Great article Anoop! Funny, I saw the recent article too and it made me think up the older article (wasn’t aware of the 2008 article). Gonna share this!
Jose Antonio | Tue March 19, 2013
Nice article. Reminds me of my grad school days:-)
Great Job again Anoop.
Beside Steriods, is there no other way to add nuclei? Glad I started training when I was younger!
Anoop | Tue March 19, 2013
Thanks Bret! I thought either you or Bret would have posted this before!
Thanks Jose for taking the time!
Thanks Sully. Creatine has shown to increase satellite cells proliferation and differentiation in vitro and vivo!
This might explain how Flex Wheeler was able to compete at the 2002 without the use of steroids. His genetics paired with the added nuclei through years of steroid usage was enough to make him look well above natural and place 6th (I think).
Im still not 100% sure he was completely clean, but this new research does give more credence to his claim.
Anoop | Wed April 17, 2013
Thanks for the comment.
I am not sure about it. But if he didn’t take any or had low doses, this may explain some of it. This also explains how bodybuilders who used to compete in the drug level, get off the drugs for years and still hold enough to win natural competitions.
Anoop | Sat May 04, 2013
Thanks! Good to see you back. Where did you vanish?
Nick Ng | Tue May 14, 2013
Yes!! We struck gold! Thanks, Anoop.
Dimitris | Fri May 17, 2013
I didnt work out for a couple of years ! Lost most of my muscles ! Two months after working out i regained all the muscle mass i ve lost and i am back in my good old condition! Muscles have memory ! Thank you ! Great article
Joe | Fri August 23, 2013
It’s a great articl,it’s helpful for me to be muscular! thank you Anoop!